里奥马德里——作为政治手段的风景园林

Madrid Rio; Landscape architecture as a political means

by Mar 11, 2011
by 风景园林新青年 Mar 11, 2011

编者按:风景园林设计虽然经常牵扯到社会、经济、生态、艺术等多方面的因素,但似乎总是与政治无关,而本文则为我们讲述了一个发生在西班牙马德里的,作为政治选举手段的设计项目的曲折故事。

Article Source: Christian Dobrick. Madrid Rio; Landscape architecture as a political means. TOPOS, VOL. 73. February, 2011.

声明:此文为正式授权文章,已征得作者同意在风景园林新青年(Youth Landscape Architecture)上发表,严禁转载。
Notice: This article was first published in TOPOS, it is a reprinted version with the official permission of the author Christian Dobrick and West 8 urban design & landscape architecture. Do not copy without permission.

The masterplan for a 120-hectare site of a reclaimed riverbank and a new urban area in the Spanish capital is based on a trilogy of key areas that provide the basic structure: a riverwalk, a large park and a project to rebuild an urban ensemble. The interventions are to restore the urban fabric.

Architecture is a discipline concerned with concepts and design. As afield strongly associated with ideological and political goals it often is the subject of criticism. Many historic examples of Haussmannian proportions spring to mind. Landscape architecture, in contrast, presents itself as an innocent profession, immaculate and almost politically neutral. That is because the profession’s design elements are exclusively associated with positive aspects of nature. They are not linked with political leanings. To devise a concept for the mayoral elections of2003 in Madrid, Alberto Ruiz Gallardón used his political experience to instigate an infra-structure development project in Madrid. His ambitious proposals included the construction of more than 100 new metro stations, improvements to 43 km of orbital motorway and the development of four high-rise buildings, which would define the city’s skyline. His election campaign focused on infrastructure measures to help strengthen fundamental conditions for a thriving economy, placing the emphasis on improvements to housing and the public realm within the city. The target was to accomplish basic structural renewal for the benefit of future generations. The citizens supported Gallardón’s plans with an absolute majority, in spite of the concurrent rise in taxes to finance the projects. In the time leading up to the financial crisis, the mayor implemented the six-billion euro infrastructure development as promised within his four-year term in office. Consequently, parts of the city centre were transformed into a permanent construction site with traffic congestion reaching almost intolerable levels. In the centre, where six km of Madrid’s urban motorway were to be aligned below ground, a 120-hectare hole was dug close to the old town. At the end of the legislative period, Alberto Ruiz Gallardón had delivered his program, and a large percentage of the population expressed confidence in him. The relationship of cause and effect of the promised interventions with the financial reality and the people’s trust in an individual is unimaginable in this form in most European countries. During the construction phase of the tunnel, an international invited competition for the design of the open space on top of it was launched. The landscape architects and urban designers West 8 from Rotterdam together with a group of renowned architects from Madrid, united under the name MRIO arquitectos led by Ginés Garrido Colomero won the competition with their masterplan design for a reclaimed river bank and a new urban area.

01: Photo Credit: West 8 urban design & landscape architecture

The competition proposal is based on the 3+30 concept, founded on the idea that the 120-hectare site is developed in a trilogy of key areas that provide the basic structure: a riverwalk along the Manzanares, a large park and a project to rebuild an urban ensemble, which had been severed by the orbital motorway near the royal palace in Madrid. A series of public and private interventions were to restore and enhance the urban fabric. The sections of the project completed in time for the elections in 2007, Avenida de Portugal, Huerta de la Partida and a part of the Salon de Pinos riverwalk covered only five percent of the total site area. At the official opening of Avenida de Portugal, the mayor explained his aspiration for a concurrent development of the economy and amenity value, using the ex-ample of the new green open space on the roof of a four-lane motorway and an underground car park for 1,000 cars. After his re-election the mayor decided that all of the competition proposals should be realized within his second term in office, and he allocated a total budget of 280 million euros. Again, the project was to be financed with a loan from the municipality and repaid by the citizens over 30 years. According to Gallardón, investment in open space would repay in the long-term through improvements to the quality of the urban environment. He deliberately avoided building development on the site to help refinance the project. The design phase of the 47 sub-projects coincided with the onset of the financial crisis, which hit Spain’s construction sector particularly hard. The 80 hectares of land above the tunnel were covered with a thin layer of soil and left a visible scar within the city. At the time when the parks, boulevards and plazas were scheduled for construction, the crisis reached its peak. Implementation was cast into doubt due to the slump in income from public finances and the suspension of building projects. To honour the promise that the open spaces along the river should be completed before the elections in the spring of2011,the city decided to use grants from the so-called Plan E, the national program for subsidising the economy, to implement the work. This decision meant that construction could continue without delay and the architects were confront-ed with even tighter time schedules. Projects had to be subdivided into smaller sections to meet the criteria of the grants, which were specifically aimed to help medium-sized construction companies.

02: The plan highlights the Arganzuela Park on the northern bank of the river. The park is the largest section of the project covering 40 hectares. The river gardens near the Puente de Toledo in the west are currently under construction. Photo Credit: West 8 urban design & landscape architecture

Salon de Pinos was opened in 2010.It is the project’s backbone, designed as a linear open space along the River Manzanares, which links existing and new urban green spaces. The theme for almost the entire area of the tunnel cover is the vegetation from the mountain region close to Madrid. Pine was chosen as the dominant species and 8,000 specimens of this resilient tree which thrives on were rock planted. The choreography of tree planting, using a pallet of pruned and shaped specimens as well as mixed and sloped planting, lent the site a natural and sculptural character, and created a botanical monument. Recently completed bridges link the Salon with the site of the proposed Arganzuela Park. In contrast to other footbridges, the two parallel bridges “Puentes Cascara” provide a shady space above the cool waters of the river, and they offer views to the city. The bridges are shaped like rough concrete domes with more than 100 thin steel cables supporting their decks. The filigree detailing of the interior is only visible on the in-side The dome-like superstructures are clad in a mosaic by the Spanish artist Daniel Canogar. The bridges are more than a part of the infrastructure – they are design elements in the park. Water is the theme of Arganzuela Park, which will constitute the largest section of the project covering 40 hectares. In contrast to the canalized river flowing deep and unreachable in its engineered bed, the park takes up the different moods of the landscapes on the Manzanares and lets visitors experience the element water. A system of streams flows through the park, and the topography is used to define spaces of different characters at their junctions. Each stream has a different character: “Rio seco”, for example, is an interpretation of dry riverbeds in the Spanish landscape, where the presence of water can be felt in all seasons. Numerous plant species help to structure the space and evoke different moods. The last sections to be implemented are the hedge gardens near the historic Toledo Bridge, Arganzuela Park and Virgen del Puerto in the north. The contract program will end with their punctual opening in April 2011, immediately before the mayor’s elections. This begs the question of what the voters might think of the politics of construction in these crisis-ridden times and how future generations will perceive the implemented measures.

03: The paving pattern of the reconstructed Plataforma del Rey. Photo Credit: Jeroen Musch

04: The paving pattern of the Avendia de Portugal reminds of cherry blossom petals. 700 cherry trees grow in the raised lawn along the avenue, which was opened in 2007. Photo Credit: West 8 urban design & landscape architecture

05: The Salon de Pinos comprises vibrant boulevards on both sides of the River Manzanares and is the backbone of the whole project. It opened in 2010 and now links existing and new urban green spaces.

06: In their design of the riverwalk on top of the tunnel, West 8 and MRIO arquitectos interpret the vegetation from the mountain region close to Madrid. Pine was chosen as the dominant species. Photo Credit: West 8 urban design & landscape architecture

07: In their design of the riverwalk on top of the tunnel, West 8 and MRIO arquitectos interpret the vegetation from the mountain region close to Madrid. Pine was chosen as the dominant species. Photo Credit: Jeroen Musch

08: The interiors of the dome-like structures of the two parallel bridges “Puentes Cascara” are clad in a mosaic by the Spanish artist Daniel Canogar. The mosaic patterns show people of the neighbourhood.

09: The “Puentes Cascara” connect the Salon the Pinos with the Arganzuela Park. Lighting along the edge of the rough concrete dome illuminates the artwork and the deck by reflection. Photo Credit: West 8 urban design & landscape architecture



无觅相关文章插件,快速提升流量

风景园林新青年

风景园林新青年

9 discussions
  1. enccy says:

    想看一些国外大学上景观设计看得书,想看一些英文原版的书,但不知道看什么,有推荐吗????????

  2. christophe.zhou says:

    编者按:风景园林设计虽然经常牵扯到社会、经济、生态、艺术等多方面的因素,但似乎总是与政治无关

    在欧洲,风景规划也好,风景设计也好都是与政治有关的

    • zhou says:

      能否进一步解释呢?或者举几个实例?

      • christophe.zhou says:

        文中第一段就与编者的话有些出入了,现在的人比较浮躁,看到是英文原文估计不会去看了吧。原文是指景观设计这一行业经常与意识形态和政治挂钩,相反是设计师本身不会有政治倾向。
        Architecture is a discipline concerned with concepts and design. As afield strongly associated with ideological and political goals it often is the subject of criticism. Many historic examples of Haussmannian proportions spring to mind. Landscape architecture, in contrast, presents itself as an innocent profession, immaculate and almost politically neutral. That is because the profession’s design elements are exclusively associated with positive aspects of nature. They are not linked with political leanings.

    • 钟惠城 says:

      国内的所有政绩工程。。

  3. christophe.zhou says: says:

    由于政治体制的原因,市镇级候选人或已当选的为了获得选民的支持,通常会在下次选举前推出一些吸引选票的行为,如进行城市规划项目,旧城改造或景观项目推动经济,旅游和就业。
    例子比比皆是,比较有名巴黎的公园贝西,拉维特公园,以及近几年的JARDINS DE L’IMAGINAIRE都是此类。近期法国的市镇规划项目比较多,也是为了两年后的市镇级选举的准备

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

风景园林新青年

风景园林新青年

希望小学 翻译 苏州古典园林 GSD 玛莎·施瓦茨 雕塑 台湾 枡野俊明 宋晔皓 五角大楼 纪念碑 布鲁克林 植物园 罗马奖 骑行 景观都市主义 LAM 视频 迪士尼音乐厅 毕业设计 陈俊愉 Mader 钢笔画 花园 韩国 冯纪忠 数字化 盐湖城 自杀 Jack Ahern Dr. Rosan Chow 狼牙山 工程 便携 设计未来城市 城市景观 IGA 世界风景园林师高峰论坛 Prof. Wolfgang Jonas 牛雄 Prof. Nigel Cross 设计研究 广场 长椅 南湖中央公园 上海 历史 加州花园 朱育帆 证书 Diana Balmori Greenway 实验 风景园林月 2013北京园博会 纽约 步行街 张乔松 幻觉 雨洪管理 方塔园 古根海姆博物馆 年会 教学元素 交通节点 国际风景园林师高峰论坛 安友丰 IFLA 美术馆 布法罗河湾散步道 鸟类 城市 TAMU 反思 BIM 西方建筑 泰山 贝聿铭 雪铁龙公园 普渡大学 校园 碳补偿林 2012IFLA亚太区会议 创业 儿童 老人 龙安寺 矶琦新 SWA 自然文化资源 北川 多样性 竞赛 托马斯·丘奇 沥青 意识形态 毛细水 ASLA 北角公园 灾后 新西兰 风景园林学会2013年会 Media Ship 环境效应 理论 天津大学 设计竞赛 概念方案 2012IFLA 王欣 洪盈玉 历史理论 Juergen Weidinger 成范永 Ruggeri 裁员 预制混凝土 博士 联谊 珊瑚礁 风景园林新青年,就在你身边 夏成钢 檀馨 清华同衡学术周 清华 风景园林学 可持续化 旅游 低能耗 绿色屋顶 志愿者 设计展 住宅花园 世博 ASLA学生奖 北林 银泉市 Silver Spring 张唐景观 禅意 Prof. Loidl-Reisch 会议 水盒子 日本设计 海平面上升 新加坡 留学 万科 苗木 职业实践 流浪汉 经典 Brownfield 维格兰 哈佛 辰山植物园 区域园林 低收入住宅 NITA 绿墙 经验 休斯顿探索公园 岭南园林 logo Vista Hermosa 鹿特丹 原子城 MLA LABash 布鲁克林大桥 三倾园 弗吉尼亚大学 UVa SANAA AGER 考研 图解 德国市民花园 铁路 哈普林 halprin 墨西哥 书评 非言述性和默会性知识 卡尔维诺 机场 可持续 垃圾 合作 湿地 纵向耕作 佛罗里达 纪念性景观 碛口古镇 绿色基础设施 盆景园 Stoss Landscape Urbanism Prof. Jürgen Weidinger 美国 Gesche Joost 铺地 俞昌斌 河流 多伦多 瑠公圳 行业 年报 加拿大 购物中心 Kingston University 朱胜萱 自然观 迪士尼 Disney 滨水 数字图解 植物 北欧 风景园林学会2011年会 沃夫岗·哈勃 空间 新青年读老经典 人文 Xeritown 几何 LIM 游乐场 客座教授 设景 Vertical Greening Systems 城市雨水 维吉尼亚理工大学 托滕堡公园 新年 生态 中央公园 公益 地震 Ron Henderson 手绘 护栏 西安世园会 钓鱼岛 如园 调查问卷 北京 论坛 鹈鹕湾 风景区 巴塞罗那 批评 棕地 马克 WEST8 数字景观 buffalo 散步道 Malden 9.11 宾夕法尼亚大学 伊利诺伊大学 UIUC 现代主义 绿色设计 韩炳越 公园 喷泉 人居环境 TOPOS Waterboxx 首尔 雨水 西班牙 枯山水 水文 建筑 安藤忠雄 英国 学习方法 保护 空气污染 可持续城市 青海 视觉文化 香港 Michael Van Valkenburgh and Associates 展览 城乡 地砖 Peter Walker 康奈尔大学 Julius Fabos 教育 庭院 洛阳 Hans Joachim Mader 绿道 RTD 城市建设 法国 Gleisdreieck 风景园林 何巧女 华南 保研 摄影 居住区 Prof. Gesche Joost 孟兆祯 城市空间 日本 水景 政治 讲座 迪拜 种植装置 种植 James Corner 沙龙 园博会 京津冀 太阳能 环境 香格里拉植物园 马萨诸塞大学 UMass 捷得国际 开放空间 野生动物廊道 刘秀晨 深圳前海 LEPC 场所 商业建筑 文化景观 什刹海 就业 参数化设计 马晓暐 德国 树屋 王劲韬 公共花园 禅修 欧洲 教学 ARC 风景园林学会2015年会 广州市绿化公司 永昌河 华盛顿 雕塑公园 国家公园 公共交通 地域性景观 技术 铺装 跨学科教育 挪威 土人景观